Socio-economic surveys have been conducted in Bushbuckridge/Agincourt villages outside Kruger National Park during the SUCSES study. Existing data and survey tools developed by University of the Witwatersrand team will be used to quantify mean annual household carbon removal from the local ecosystems and investigate statistical relationships with household characteristics to model village-level carbon removal over time, using longitudinal household data in the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance System site.